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Education In Nepal

Overview of the Education System in Nepal ...

The Ministry of Education (MOE) coordinates education activities throughout Nepal. The Ministry is responsible for educational planning and management as well as in improving service delivery systems across the country. According to the Department of Secondary Education (which includes the department for primary education), the aims of education in Nepal are to produce healthy citizens who are: familiar with the national tradition, culture, and social environment in daily life; aware of scientific issues; creative, cooperative, and industrious; and able to contribute to economic development. 

The National Education Goals are to: nurture and develop the personalities and inherent talents in each person; instil respect for human values, and the will to safeguard national and social beliefs so as to help develop a healthy social unity; help the individual to socialize, enhancing social unity; help the individual keep his or her identity in the national and international context and to help him or her lead a socially harmonious life in the modern world; assist the modernization of the country by creating individuals able to manpower for its development; teach the thoughtful protection and wise use of Nepal’s national resources; and to bring those who are underprivileged into the mainstream of the nation.

The Nepalese Government does not support the infrastructure of primary schools but in some cases supplies teachers, though not in the schools outlined in this proposal. Government-supplied teachers are frequently of poor quality, and alleged corruption in league with government officials means it is not uncommon for teachers to draw a salary but not actually visit the schools where they should be working. 

Subjects currently taught in the primary schools, including those within the scope of the project are: Nepali, Maths, History, Social Studies, Geography, Preliminary English (where possible), Science and General Knowledge. 

Primary education in Nepal lasts for five years (Grades 1-5). Secondary education then comprises three cycles: three years lower secondary (Grades 6-8), two years upper secondary (Grades 9-10), and two years of higher secondary education (Grades 11-12). On completion of upper secondary school, students sit for the School Leaving Certificate (SLC). 

Sanskrit secondary level students sit for the Uttar Madhyama Certificate Examination. 

Higher secondary level education has four streams: Humanities, Science, Commerce, and Education. At the end of these studies, students sit for the Higher Secondary Certificate. The same level of education is also being provided by the Tribhuvan University (all four streams), Kathmandu University (science stream) and Mahendra Sanskrit University (a separate Sanskrit stream). Students enrolled in Tribhuvan University sit for the Proficiency Certificate, those enrolled in Kathmandu University sit for the intermediate examinations, and those enrolled in Mahendra Sanskrit University sit for the Uttar Madhyama examinations. 

Technical education may start after Grade 5 when pupils can study at Basic Technical Schools for three years to obtain a Training Level Certificate.

Higher secondary education has recently been introduced as an upward extension of secondary education and will be implemented in a phased manner. This will lead to the phasing out of the Proficiency Certificate level courses at university level, shifting the responsibility to the Higher Secondary Education Board. Tribhuvan University has already initiated the process of phasing out this level to higher secondary education.

Structure of the School System in Nepal ...

Pre-higher education Academic Year: Classes from July to June


  • Type of school providing this education: Primary School
  • Length of Program: 5 years
  • Age Level: 6-11

Lower Secondary

  • Type of school providing this education: Lower Secondary School (Grades 6-7)
  • Length of Program: 2 years
  • Age Level: 11-13

Upper Secondary

  • Type of school providing this education: General Secondary School, Sanskrit Secondary School (Grades 8-10)
  • Length of Program: 3 years
  • Age Level: 13-16
  • Certificate/Diploma awarded: School Leaving Certificate, Uttar Madhyama Certificate Examination

Higher Secondary

  • Type of school providing this education: Higher Secondary School
  • Length of Program: 2 years
  • Age Level: 16-18
  • Certificate/Diploma awarded: Higher Secondary Certificate, Proficiency Certificate (in universities)

Elementary Technical

  • Type of school providing this education: Technical School
  • Length of Program: 4 years
  • Age Level: 11-14
  • Certificate/Diploma awarded: Training Level Certificate

Secondary Technical

  • Type of school providing this education: Middle Level Technical School
  • Length of Program: 4 years
  • Age Level: 14-18
  • Certificate/Diploma awarded: Craftsman Certificate

Higher Technical

  • Type of school providing this education: Higher Technical School
  • Length of Program: 2 years
  • Age Level: 16-18
  • Certificate/Diploma awarded: Technical School Leaving Certificate, Technician Certificate (after 3 years)

Teacher Education in Nepal ...

Higher secondary schools offer a two-year secondary program after the School Leaving Certificate leading to a Certificate of Education. This is the formal program for the training of primary school teachers. 

The Ministry of Education also organizes primary teacher training programmes, and the Faculty of Education on behalf of the Ministry conducts some programs. There is also a radio education teacher-training programme. The minimum qualification required for these programmes is a School Leaving Certificate.

Lower Secondary teachers follow a two-year course after the School Leaving Certificate. Tribhuvan University offers a two year Bachelor’s degree program and a two year Master of Education and Postgraduate Diploma. The University of Kathmandu offers a three to four year Bachelor’s degree program in education 

Source: MOE.